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楼主  发表于: 2013-08-06   

退休規劃

MoneyTalksNews網站報導,避免規畫退休常犯的錯誤,就可減少對退休生活的擔心。
以下是退休規畫常犯的八大錯誤:
一、沒有規畫:沒有規畫退休生活,是最大的錯誤。花一個周末好好制定一個計畫,你可以問自己以下這些問題:退休後我想做什麼?我是否應為旅行或享受愛好而存錢?我需要多少收入才足以支付開銷?我現在存了多少錢?我的目標金額是多少?我需要多少錢才能達到目標?我每個月要存多少錢才能達到目標?
二、太晚開始存錢:越早開始存錢,退休時的積蓄就會越多。
三、沒有把握401(k):假如公司提供401(k),而你沒有參加,這是一大錯誤。存錢進401(k),是從稅前的薪水支票扣除,意味你現在不用為這部分的薪水付稅。很多雇主會提供到某百分比的相對資金,這是白白送給你的錢。
四、不了解風險:股票會有風險,但如果你因此完全不碰股票,就是在剝奪退休帳戶成長的機會。不過假如退休帳戶都是高風險的股票,你可能在退休前蒙受慘重損失。專家建議用100減去你的年齡,就是退休帳戶中你應買股票的比率。例如你今年25歲,就把75%的錢放在股票。你今年75歲,就把 25%的錢買股票。
五、依賴社會安全退休金: 假如你的退休生活完全依賴社安金,你可能日子會很難過,社安金很可能不夠生活。今年到完全退休年齡才退休的人,最高社安金為 2533元。 62歲退休者的社安金為1923元。
六、了解醫療費用:假如你以為醫療費用會在滿65歲時,完全由聯邦醫療保險(Medicare)支付,那你將大失所望。2013年退休的夫婦,平均需要22萬元才能支付退休的醫療費用。這還不包括養老院或其它長期照顧的服務。退休人士現在花在醫療的費用高過食物。
七、向未來借貸:你可向401(k)借錢,但這不表示你應該這麼做。你不但要還錢,而且借錢期間,你的退休帳戶的成長幅度會小很多。
八、提早兌現401(k):假如你辭職,你可能很想兌現401(k),但是這麼做會導致你積欠這筆錢的稅金,而且還得付10%的罰款。假如在退休前兌現401(k),你需為拿到的錢付稅。其實你應把401(k)轉成IRA,這樣就繼續免稅。
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沙发  发表于: 2013-08-06   
8 Retirement Planning Mistakes to Avoid
Money Talks News explains how you can do that. Check it out, then read on for advice.
1. Failing to plan

In another section of the survey, only 23 percent of respondents told the Employee Benefit Research Institute they were very confident they’re doing a good job of financially preparing for retirement. Failing to plan is one of the biggest mistakes you can make. If you don’t have a plan, spend a weekend hashing one out. Here are some questions to ask yourself:
  • What do I want to do in retirement? Should I save for travel or hobbies?
  • How much will I need to cover my expenses?
  • How much do I have saved now?
  • What is my goal amount?
  • How much will I need to reach my goal?
  • How much should I put aside a month to get there?
2. Starting too late
I started saving for my retirement at 18 because my parents convinced me to sign up for my company’s 401(k) plan. At the time, it was just a few bucks a month, but that seed money has had time to grow. If I’d started now, I would have missed out on 11 years of compound interest.
Bottom line: The sooner you start saving, the bigger your pot of money will be when you’re ready to quit work.
3. Not taking advantage of 401(k)’s
If your company offers a 401(k) plan and you’re not contributing, you’re making a huge mistake. Contributions to your 401(k) come out of your paycheck before taxes, meaning it’s a portion of your income that you won’t pay taxes on now. And many employers have a match program, meaning they’ll match your contributions up to a certain percentage, which is free money.
Talk to your human resources office about your company’s 401(k) plan and sign up ASAP.
4. Not understanding the risks
Stocks come with risks, but if that’s causing you to shy away from stocks entirely, you’re depriving your retirement account of an opportunity to grow. On the flip side, you could be taking on too much risk. If you have an aggressive retirement plan loaded with high-risk stocks, you might end up losing a big chunk right before you retire.
Stacy, in a post for beginning stock investors, offers this advice:
I suggest subtracting your age from 100, and putting no more than the resulting percentage of your long-term savings into stocks. So if you’re 25, 100 minus 25 equals 75 percent in stocks. If you’re 75, you’d only use stocks for 25 percent of your savings.
But as I also said, that’s just a rule of thumb. If you’re nervous, you’ve invested too much.
5. Relying on Social Security
If you’re relying on Social Security to keep you solvent in your golden years, you might be setting yourself up for disaster. Use the Social Security Administration’s Retirement Estimator to see an estimate of your Social Security benefits. Also sign up to see your Social Security statement online.
Odds are, it won’t be enough. The maximum Social Security benefit this year for someone who retires at full retirement age is $2,533 and only $1,923 if you take early retirement at age 62.
6. Underestimating health care costs
If you assume your health care costs will be covered after you qualify for Medicare at age 65, you might be in for a rude awakening when you retire. Fidelity Investments says a couple retiring in 2013 will need $220,000 on average to cover health care costs in retirement. That’s not including nursing home or other types of long-term care.
Fidelity adds that “retirees now spend more on health care than they do on food.”
7. Borrowing from your future
You can borrow from your 401(k), but that doesn’t mean you should. I worked for a company that actually encouraged people to borrow from their 401(k)’s to cover expenses like a new house or car. You will have to pay it back, but in the meantime your retirement funds won’t be growing as much as they otherwise would if you had left that money in the account.
8. Cashing out early
If you quit your job, you may be tempted to cash out your 401(k), but do so and you’ll not only owe taxes on the amount but you’ll face a 10 percent penalty. If you cash out your 401(k) before your retirement, you’ll have to pay taxes on any money you collect. Instead, roll your 401(k) into an IRA and stay tax-free

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